German Exploration of the Polar World. A History, 1870-1940.


p. 46, Karl Koldewey’s Germania sailed with the Hansato Greenland in June 1869, but soon the ships parted. Hard to know which fared the worse. The Hansa sank. Aboard the Germania: Confinement, tension, isolation, darkness, and the exhausting routine of physical labor gradually erode group morale. The psychological health of the men had not been neglected when planning the expedition, and efforts were made to supply healthy diversions. A newspaper was attempted (as would be the case later with subsequent German expeditions to Greenland, but it “died of neglect” after five issues.