Contributions to the Natural History of Arctic America, Made in Connection with the Howgate Polar Expedition, 1877-78. Kumlien, Ludwig. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1879. 1877-78 US Preliminary Arctic Expedition for IPY 1881-84 (led by Howard Howgate). Arctic Reading: United States No references here to books or reading, though his work as naturalist would probably have required some sources.